Gs Pay Scale 2023 Puerto Rico 2 – Disclaimer: This webpage provides an overview of federal investment and production tax credits for businesses, nonprofit organizations, and other entities that own solar facilities, including photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal power generation (CSP) technologies. It does not constitute professional tax advice or other professional financial advice and is subject to change based on additional guidance from the Treasury Department. It should not be used as the sole source of information when making purchase decisions, investment decisions, tax decisions, or when performing other binding agreements.
Solar PV panels on top of the Tulsa Central Library in downtown Tulsa, Oklahoma. Photo courtesy of Jared Heidemann.
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There are two tax credits available to businesses and other entities such as nonprofits and local governments and tribes that purchase solar systems (see the Homeowner’s Guide to Federal Solar Photovoltaic Tax Credits for information for individuals):
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Project owners generally cannot claim ITC and PTC for the same property, although they may claim different credits for co-located systems, such as solar and storage, depending on other IRS guidelines. Other types of renewable and storage technologies are also eligible for ITC but are outside the scope of this website.
Solar systems that enter service in 2022 or later and begin construction before 2033 are eligible for the 30% ITC or 2.75¢/kWh PTC  if they meet the Treasury Department’s employment requirements  or less than 1 year. megawatt (MW)  in size.
ITC is an upfront tax credit that does not vary based on system performance, while PTC can provide more attractive cash flow, as tax credits earned over time. Whether you choose ITC or PTC depends largely on the cost of the project, the amount of sunlight available, and whether it qualifies for any bonus tax credits. See the calculation example below.
In general, large-scale PV projects will receive more value if selected for PTC in sunny locations, while projects located in less sunny areas, incurring high installation costs, or qualifying for bonus tax credits, are more likely to benefit from. It’s ITC.
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Small PV projects and CSP projects generally receive more value when using the ITC, especially if they can use the low-income bonus, which is not available with the PTC. However, as the cost of installed PV and CSP systems decreases over time (or produces more electricity), PTC may become more attractive to all sectors.
While PTC is calculated based on the electricity produced by the system, ITC is calculated based on the cost of building the system, so understanding what costs are eligible to be included is important to determine how much a system tax credit qualifies for. .
To calculate the ITC, you multiply the applicable tax credit rate by the “tax base,” or the amount spent on the eligible property. Eligible properties include the following:
The cost of installing a roof is generally not suitable, except for incremental costs, or more than what you will spend if the roof is not used for solar. These costs may include solar shingles, solar tiles, or the incremental cost of installing a reflective roof membrane that increases electricity generation.
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A structure that houses a solar PV system may be eligible for ITC if the solar PV system is designed with the main purpose of generating electricity and other uses of the structure are merely incidental. Although structural components are usually not eligible for ITC, the IRS noted an exception for components “so specially engineered that it is essentially a part of the machine or equipment that it operates.”  – Therefore, PV has been integrated into buildings, such as solar windows, shingles, or facades, which provide dual functions that are eligible for ITC.
To qualify for the full ITC or PTC, projects that begin construction before January 31, 2023, must meet the Treasury Department’s employment requirements: all wages for construction, alterations, and repairs—for the first five years of the project for the ITC and the first ten years of the project for the PTC -paid at the prevailing rates in that place. In addition, a certain percentage of the total construction work hours for the project must be done by apprentices. The rate will increase over time, starting at 10% for projects starting construction in 2022, 12.5% for projects starting construction in 2023, and 15% for projects starting construction after 2023.
Projects may correct existing wage requirements, if not met, by paying affected employees the difference in wages plus interest and paying a $5,000 fee to the Department of Labor for each affected employee. The internship requirement may also be met if a good faith effort to comply is made or a $50/hour penalty is paid to the Treasury for non-compliance. Both penalties are increased if the conditions are deliberately neglected.
ITC and PTC offer additional credits in addition to project-based credits based on job requirements.
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To qualify for the domestic content bonus, all structural steel or iron products used must be produced in the United States and a “required percentage” of the total cost of the manufactured product (including components) at the facility must be mined, manufactured, or produced. in the United States. The rate is calculated by dividing the cost of all products and components of domestic production by the total cost of all products produced.
Projects that meet the minimum domestic content are eligible for a 10 percent increase in the ITC value (e.g., an additional 10% for a 30% ITC = 40%) or a 10 percent increase in the PTC value (e.g., an additional 0.3¢/kWh to 2 .75 ¢/kWh).
The percentage of required products starts at 40% for all projects that start construction before 2025, increases to 45% for projects that start construction in 2025, 50% for projects that start construction in 2026, and 55% for projects which starts construction after 2026.[18 ] ]
On May 12, 2023, the IRS issued guidance on domestic content bonuses. In the guidance, the IRS provides a non-exhaustive list of solar PV steel products, manufactured products, and manufactured product components, which taxpayers may rely on for classification purposes. These include:
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The May 12 guidance also provides more clarity on how to classify products as domestic or other US-made products, which will help determine whether a project qualifies for the domestic content bonus. Under the new guidelines, the total cost of a manufactured product is only classified as domestic if it is made in the United States and all of its components are located in the United States. However, it does not consider the origin of its subcomponents. For example, the origin of the PV cell is considered because it is a component of the PV module, but the origin of the PV wafer used to produce the PV cell is not considered. If the product-or one or more of its components-is manufactured or mined outside the United States, then the product is considered a “non-US. manufactured product”. Only the price of domestically produced or mined components can be included for the purpose of meeting the domestic content bonus requirements, but not the work to produce the product.
The guidance also states that only direct costs, as defined in § 1.263A-1(e)(2)(i), that the manufacturer pays or pays to produce the manufactured product may be included in the calculation. Direct costs are defined as direct labor costs and direct material costs,  but do not include indirect costs incurred by the manufacturer such as electricity, depreciation, repairs and maintenance, overhead, and profits (that is, direct costs do not include all costs that are incurred to produce the product and most likely do not reflect the cost of the manufactured product paid by the taxpayer).
The following example, adapted from IRS guidelines, shows how to calculate the percentage of domestic content for a project:
A taxpayer must submit to the IRS a statement certifying that each project applies to the taxpayer reporting the amount of domestic content bonus meeting the requirements of steel, iron and manufactured products and must maintain records evideving the statement.
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This guidance is valid until 90 days after the date of publication of the proposed regulation on domestic content (there is no publication deadline for future regulations).
Projects in the community are eligible for a 10 percent increase in the value of the ITC (for example, 10% is not for an ITC of 30% = 40%) or a 10 percent increase in the value of the PTC.  For more detailed information, please see The latest Treasury advice and maps.
The low income bonus is only available for projects using the ITC and is subject to a program cap of 1.8 GWdc per year. This bonus is given to projects under 5 MWac either:
The IRS will provide a program limit of 1.8 GW for projects, which can carry unused annual allowances for three years.
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There will be an application period of 60 days (no application date announced), after which the rolling application process will remain open if the category is below.